[WIP] Ardunaut (previously Parallax rocket launch)

Perhaps so, but I know I can be a bit overcritical at times.
When it comes to code I don’t like settling for second best,
I’m always thinking “is there a better way to do this?”.
I’m also not very good at remembering to tell people “you’ve done a good job”.
(And that goes double for myself.)

Look at it this way: every time someone provides you with advice,
that advice is then available to the whole forum.

So really it’s helping other people too, not just you.

(And failing that, at least @Botisaurus likes seeing me preaching about C++ all day. :P)

Energy isn’t a problem, I could jabber on about the ins and outs of programming for days.

Time can be though.
(There are projects I should be working on that I keep putting off because they’re boring and difficult.)

Programming is a vast and complicated thing.

It may only take a few months to get to a point where you can do a lot of cool things with it,
but it takes at least a few years to get genuinely good at it.

I think a lot of people are afraid to say that because they don’t want to put people off, but it’s true.
However, that’s true for a lot of things.
It’s true for learning an instrument.
It’s true for learning craftsmanship skills like woodworking or upholstering.

I think the difference with programming though is that there’s a lot of different tools involved,
and they’re all intertwined.
A program is like a big machine full of loads of different gears and cogs (objects and functions),
so it can be difficult to break it down into individual parts.

I’m starting to get philosophical and rambly,
so I’ll stop there before I’ve suddenly written another paragraph.

3 Likes

Well thanks again, I certainly appreciate it, just don’t mean to clog up the threads too much or make people read between the two programs just because ive had the time on my hands lately (as I’m sure you’ve noticed ;P) I just start classes in a month and have been jobless looking for part time work for during school, unfortunately.

Spent the last 5 years in a job field that made me miserable but had my sights on this sort of stuff for the last few, just had a hard time getting started with the right momentum til more recently and know I won’t have as much time coming up, plus having been worn out and frustrated by things a long time even just the little bits of progress (and especially help) have gone a long way, both in fulfillment and information, don’t mean to be overzealous.

And I can especially appreciate a ‘better way to do it’ approach as an approach to learning it, that’s what got me interested in this sort of thing initially was that I have more of a problem solving type learning style and approach (and with microcontroller hardware and software you can do nearly anything), not to mention that I’ve admired a lot of people’s work on here from afar for the last couple years and have a pretty high amount of respect/appreciation for you guys and your work.

Anyway, sorry to get kind gooey for a minute, was just thinking to give a more sincere thanks anyway, but I’ve got plenty more homework to get back to :stuck_out_tongue:

1 Like

Of course I do!
Because:

:v::heart:

2 Likes

Not just him. I bow for you oh great C++ master :pray::nerd_face:

4 Likes

Sorry, I know this is a very basic question, I just obviously don’t know and haven’t been able to find a clear answer so I’m asking… but if I made a function that modified the variable within it, would I still need a return value? All of the examples I can find use separate variables for input and output so I wasn’t sure, but I was thinking something like

void mapscrollUp(){
  background1XY.pointX -= 1;
  background1XY.pointX -= 2;
  background1XY.pointX -= 3;
}

and just calling it each time I wanted it to scroll, but I’m not sure if it would work with no return value/type.

Also, I got everything fixed using fewer structs (and removed the gamestate to get rid of clutter), but still need to fix the frame increment and progmem (which I will do now/before attempting to add any functions).

You say sorry quite a lot, are you British by any chance? :P

That doesn’t make it any less important.

If it’s a global variable then no.
If it’s a local variable then yes, if you want to use the value outside the function.

The example you gave would presumably work because background1XY is presumably either a global variable or a member variable.

Having a gamestate variable as you had isn’t a bad idea,
it’s just that there’s a better way to do it than using bare integers.

When you’re ready to add it back in,
I’ll explain about enum classes (‘unscoped enumerations’ to give them their technical name).
(One of the examples I could find already on the forum is here. And there’s another example here.)

1 Like

Ah, thank you! Also, I scrolled up and somehow missed your bullet point about the fuel bar (which contained a lot of much better info for populating the struct and removing name redundancy, so thanks for that) I was definitely just confused about the object oriented part, was able to follow along to degree but seeing a lot of variables named ‘x’ in someone else’s program when i knew less about what I was looking at was just confusing :stuck_out_tongue: Also, the fuel rate was because the bar was moving too fast and I was able to slow it down that way by checking if the appropriate length of time had elapsed.

Just because I was late on that I still have some more redundancy to remove before making any more of a mess, but before I get into it, I’m looking at most of my code and it seems like I can simplify it significantly just by moving some things into their own functions then calling them where they are redundant, but is it really as simple as it seems or am I missing something else? :stuck_out_tongue:

Thanks again!

1 Like

Actually, seems im already getting ahead of myself still not understanding structs yet, sorry. Getting the most errors yet, though (do i get a medal? :P)

Here’s my current code (still havent fixed the frame issue yet, but bear with me):

#include <Arduboy2.h>
Arduboy2 arduboy;

uint16_t heightCounter = 0;
struct Timer {
  unsigned long currentMillis;
  unsigned long previousMillis = 0;
};

struct PointXY {
  int x = 0;
  int y = 0;
};

struct Launchpad {
  int x1;
  int y1;
  int x2;
  int y2;
};

struct FuelBar {
  uint16_t x;
  uint16_t y;
  uint8_t height;
  uint8_t width;
  uint16_t rate;
};

struct Arrow {
  uint16_t x1;
  uint16_t x2;
  uint16_t x3;
  uint16_t y1;
  uint16_t y2;
  uint16_t y3;


}

Timer timer;
PointXY playerXY { 63, 50 };
Launchpad launchpad { 61, 58, 73, 58 };
PointXY background1 { 0, -75 };
PointXY background2 {0, -75 };
PointXY background3 {0, -75 };
FuelBar fuelBar { 0, 20, 30, 5, 800 };
Arrow arrow { 63, 50, 70, 50, 66, 55 };



constexpr int worldWidth = 296;
constexpr int worldHeight = 128;
constexpr int tileSize = 64;
uint8_t const *playerSprite = nullptr;

PROGMEM const unsigned char playerUp[] = {
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};

PROGMEM const unsigned char playerLeft[] = {
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};

PROGMEM const unsigned char playerRight[] = {
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  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
};

PROGMEM const unsigned char backgroundTile1[] = {
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};

PROGMEM const unsigned char backgroundTile2[] = {
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  64, 64,
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};

void setup() {
  arduboy.boot();
  arduboy.setFrameRate(10);
  playerSprite = playerUp;
  arduboy.clear();
}

uint8_t playerFrame = 0;

void loop() {

  if (!arduboy.nextFrame()) {
    return;
  }

  timer.currentMillis = millis();
  arduboy.clear();
  //print altitude (height counter), draw fuel bar, launch pad, and player sprite
  arduboy.print("alt.");
  arduboy.print('\n');
  arduboy.print(heightCounter);
  arduboy.print("00");
  arduboy.fillRect(fuelBar.x, fuelBar.y, fuelBar.width, fuelBar.height);
  arduboy.drawLine(launchpad.x1 + background1.x, launchpad.y1 - background1.y, launchpad.x2 + background1.x, launchpad.y2 - background1.y);
  Sprites::drawSelfMasked(playerXY.x, playerXY.y, playerSprite, playerFrame);
  //For each row in the column, draw background
  for (int x = 0; x < worldWidth; x = x + tileSize ) {
    for (int y = 0; y < worldHeight; y = y + tileSize) {
      Sprites::drawSelfMasked(x + background1.x, y - background1.y, backgroundTile1, 0 );
      Sprites::drawSelfMasked(x + background2.x, y - background2.y, backgroundTile2, 0 );
      Sprites::drawSelfMasked(x + background3.x, y - background3.y, backgroundTile3, 0 );
    }
  }

  //gravity
  //if up button is not pressed and height is above 1
  if (!arduboy.pressed(UP_BUTTON) && heightCounter >= 1) {
    //lower height counter
    --heightCounter;
    //if  height counter is less than 20 move player, if greater scroll background
    if (heightCounter <= 20) {
      ++playerXY.y;
    }
    if (heightCounter >= 20) {
      background1.y += 1;
      background2.y += 2;
      background3.y += 3;
    }

    if (heightCounter >= 20) {
      arduboy.fillTriangle(arrow.x1 + background1.x, arrow.y1, arrow.x2 + background2.x, arrow.y2, arrow.x3 + background1.x, arrow.y3);

    }
  }
  //movement
  //if up button pressed
  if (arduboy.pressed(UP_BUTTON)) {
    //raise height counter
    ++heightCounter;
    //if height counter is less than 20 move player, if greater scroll background
    if (heightCounter <= 20) {
      --playerXY.y;
    }
    if (heightCounter >= 20) {
      arduboy.fillTriangle(arrow.x1  + background1.x, arrow.y1 , arrow.x2 + background1.x, arrow.y2 , arrow.x3 + background1.x, arrow.y3);
      background1.y -= 1;
      background2.y -= 2;
      background3.y -= 3;
    }
    //if time elapsed is greater than fuel rate, lower bar
    if ((timer.currentMillis - timer.previousMillis >= fuelBar.rate && fuelBar.height >= 1)) {
      ++fuelBar.y;
      --fuelBar.height;
      timer.previousMillis = timer.currentMillis;
    }
    //change player sprite and frame
    playerSprite = playerUp;
    ++playerFrame;
    if (playerFrame > 3) {
      playerFrame = 0;
    }
  }
  //if left button is pressed and background is less than 75, scroll background and animate sprite
  if (arduboy.pressed(LEFT_BUTTON) && background1.x <= 75) {
    background1.x += 1;
    background2.x += 2;
    background3.x += 3;
    playerSprite = playerLeft;
    ++playerFrame;
    if (playerFrame > 3) {
      playerFrame = 0;
    }
  }
  //and right
  if (arduboy.pressed(RIGHT_BUTTON) && background1.x >= -75) {
    background1.x -= 1;
    background2.x -= 2;
    background3.x -= 3;
    playerSprite = playerRight;
    ++playerFrame;
    if (playerFrame > 3) {
      playerFrame = 0;
    }
  }
  //if no buttons are pressed, frame for player animation is 0
  if (!arduboy.pressed(UP_BUTTON) && !arduboy.pressed(DOWN_BUTTON) && !arduboy.pressed(LEFT_BUTTON) && !arduboy.pressed(RIGHT_BUTTON)) {
    playerFrame = 0;
  }
  arduboy.display();
}

That makes sense.

I was about to talk about API design and suggest some alternative ways of handling the fuel bar,
but I think I’ll put that off for now or I’m just going to confuse you.

A lot of programming is about making decisions and having to make trade offs.

Sometimes it really is just that simple.

I was going to ramble on about the ‘coffee machine’ thing programming teachers often like to do to make a point about the necessity of functions, but I decided halfway through that I was going to end up turning this into a text wall.

Actually there’s only two problems.

Firstly you’re missing a semicolon after the definition of Arrow.
Secondly you can’t mix a default member initialiser with uniform initialisation syntax.

struct PointXY
{
  // The = 0 is a default member initialiser
  int x = 0;
  int y = 0;
};

// ...

// The { 0, -75 } is uniform initialisation syntax
PointXY background3 { 0, -75 };

I think I know why this isn’t allowed, but it’s kind of boring and complicated.

The bottom line is that if they didn’t ban this they’d have to decide between one of two alternatives, and I suspect the language design comittee could never agree on which alternative is better.


Looking at your code, with some of these things I think what you actually want are just shapes to draw.

E.g. Arrow is pretty much just a triangle, FuelBar is mostly a rectangle and Launchpad is just a line.


Sorry I took a long time to answer this.
There’s a lot of stuff where got half way through and then decided “this is far too much text” so I removed it.

1 Like

Oh awesome, thanks! That fixed it (just had to put a few of the appropriate operators back in the right places as well). Ill move on to trying functions now.

1 Like

Sorry, how do you mean? Or do you mean making the structs so that I can just re use it for other instances of the same shape?

EDIT: actually, speak of the devil, just realized my arrow isnt displaying correctly, for some reason -_- think i just got the coordinates messed up though

EDIT 2: Yep, got it working

Yes something along those lines.

So you have a struct for Rectangle, Triangle et cetera,
and then when you want a shape you can reuse one of those instead of writing a new struct.

(Though Arduboy2 already has a Rect struct.)

How did you mean? Ive started getting the functions set up and working fairly well (minus a few hiccups and although im sure they could likely be better), and i ended up making a function for it since i use it in both places, what were you thinking?

Just something a bit more like:

struct UPoint
{
	uint16_t x;
	uint16_t y;
};

struct Size
{
	uint8_t width;
	uint8_t height;
};

struct Rectangle
{
	UPoint position;
	Size size;
};

struct Triangle
{
	UPoint points[3];
};

A function for what?

Hmm, was having pretty good luck but i think i got a little overzealous trying to break things up into too large pieces so now im troubleshooting a bit (or reducing the size of the functions). Everything was working up until I added a function for the handleInput(); (meaning all my other functions worked so far, surprisingly :stuck_out_tongue: And I meant I added a function to draw the triangle. Heres my current code (in case it may be something obvious):

Quick edit: also, meant to ask, is there a way to create a function that can test mutiple if() statements? I tried to cut down on some of my code by combing the scrollUp and scrollDown functions but it didnt work (and if possible i would also like to add the conditions for left and right in the same function to trim down the code)

Sorry, edit again: More specifically, the direction input left works correctly but right and up dont (and for some reason the up axis increments right as well).

Edit again: Actually i might be getting a bit ahead of myself… tried to retrace and get it back to a working state and seems it does the same so now im not sure where i went wrong, gonna try to get it in some form of working order and see just where the problem is.

#include <Arduboy2.h>
Arduboy2 arduboy;


uint16_t heightCounter = 0;
struct Timer {
  unsigned long currentMillis;
  unsigned long previousMillis = 0;
};

struct PointXY {
  int x = 0;
  int y = 0;
};

struct Launchpad {
  int x1;
  int y1;
  int x2;
  int y2;
};

struct FuelBar {
  uint16_t x;
  uint16_t y;
  uint8_t height;
  uint8_t width;
  uint16_t rate;
};

struct Arrow {
  uint16_t x1;
  uint16_t x2;
  uint16_t x3;
  uint16_t y1;
  uint16_t y2;
  uint16_t y3;


};

Timer timer;
PointXY playerXY;
Launchpad launchpad { 61, 58, 73, 58 };
PointXY background1;
PointXY background2;
PointXY background3;
FuelBar fuelBar { 0, 20, 30, 5, 800 };
Arrow arrow { 61, 73, 67, 58, 58, 64 };



constexpr int worldWidth = 296;
constexpr int worldHeight = 128;
constexpr int tileSize = 64;
uint8_t const *playerSprite = nullptr;

PROGMEM const unsigned char playerUp[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 9 Height: 9
  9, 9,
  0x00, 0x00, 0xE0, 0x7C, 0x47, 0x7C, 0xE0, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x00, 0xE0, 0x7C, 0xC7, 0x7C, 0xE0, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x00, 0xE0, 0x7C, 0xC7, 0x7C, 0xE0, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x00, 0xE0, 0x7C, 0xC7, 0x7C, 0xE0, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
};

PROGMEM const unsigned char playerLeft[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 9 Height: 16
  9, 9,
  0x01, 0x06, 0x2A, 0x74, 0xA8, 0x1C, 0x08, 0x10, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x01, 0x06, 0x2A, 0x74, 0xA8, 0x3C, 0x48, 0x10, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x01, 0x06, 0x2A, 0x74, 0xA8, 0x3C, 0x48, 0x90, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x01, 0x06, 0x2A, 0x74, 0xA8, 0x3C, 0x48, 0x10, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
};

PROGMEM const unsigned char playerRight[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 9 Height: 16
  9, 9,
  0x00, 0x10, 0x08, 0x1C, 0xA8, 0x74, 0x2A, 0x06, 0x01,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x10, 0x48, 0x3C, 0xA8, 0x74, 0x2A, 0x06, 0x01,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x90, 0x48, 0x3C, 0xA8, 0x74, 0x2A, 0x06, 0x01,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x10, 0x48, 0x3C, 0xA8, 0x74, 0x2A, 0x06, 0x01,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
};

PROGMEM const unsigned char backgroundTile1[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 64 Height: 64
  64, 64,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x04, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
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  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
};

PROGMEM const unsigned char backgroundTile2[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 64 Height: 64
  64, 64,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
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  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x04, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
};

PROGMEM const unsigned char backgroundTile3[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 64 Height: 64
  64, 64,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x08, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
};

void setup() {
  arduboy.boot();
  arduboy.setFrameRate(10);
  playerSprite = playerUp;
  arduboy.clear();
}

uint8_t playerFrame = 0;

void loop() {

  if (!arduboy.nextFrame()) {
    return;
  }

  timer.currentMillis = millis();
  arduboy.clear();
  drawGame();
  handleInput();
  arduboy.display();
}

void updatePlayerFrame() {
  if (playerFrame < 3) {
    ++playerFrame;
  }
  else
    playerFrame = 0;
}

void movePlayerUp() {
  --playerXY.y;
}

void movePlayerDown() {
  ++playerXY.x;
}

void scrollUp() {
  background1.y -= 1;
  background2.y -= 2;
  background3.y -= 3;
}

void scrollDown() {
  background1.y += 1;
  background2.y += 2;
  background3.y += 3;

}
void scrollLeft() {
  if (background1.x <= 75) {
    background1.x += 1;
    background2.x += 2;
    background3.x += 3;
  }
}

void scrollRight() {
  if (background1.x >= -75) {
    background1.x -= 1;
    background2.x -= 2;
    background3.x -= 3;
  }
}

void drawGame() {
  //print altitude (height counter), draw fuel bar, launch pad, and player sprite
  arduboy.print("alt.");
  arduboy.print('\n');
  arduboy.print(heightCounter);
  arduboy.print("00");
  arduboy.fillRect(fuelBar.x, fuelBar.y, fuelBar.width, fuelBar.height);
  arduboy.drawLine(launchpad.x1 + background1.x, launchpad.y1 - background1.y, launchpad.x2 + background1.x, launchpad.y2 - background1.y);
  Sprites::drawSelfMasked(playerXY.x + 63, playerXY.y + 50, playerSprite, playerFrame);
  //For each row in the column, draw background
  for (int x = 0; x < worldWidth; x = x + tileSize ) {
    for (int y = 0; y < worldHeight; y = y + tileSize) {
      Sprites::drawSelfMasked(x + background1.x, y - background1.y - 75, backgroundTile1, 0 );
      Sprites::drawSelfMasked(x + background2.x, y - background2.y - 75, backgroundTile2, 0 );
      Sprites::drawSelfMasked(x + background3.x, y - background3.y - 75, backgroundTile3, 0 );
    }
  }
}

void drawArrow() {
  arduboy.fillTriangle(arrow.x1 + background1.x, arrow.y1, arrow.x2 + background1.x, arrow.y2, arrow.x3 + background1.x, arrow.y3);
}

void handleInput() {
  //gravity
  if (!arduboy.pressed(UP_BUTTON) && heightCounter >= 1) {
    //lower height counter
    --heightCounter;
    //if  height counter is less than 20 move player, if greater scroll background
    if (heightCounter <= 20) {
      movePlayerDown();
    }
    if (heightCounter >= 20) {
      scrollUp();
      drawArrow();
    }
  }
  //movement
  //if up button pressed
  if (arduboy.pressed(UP_BUTTON)) {
    //raise height counter
    ++heightCounter;
    //if height counter is less than 20 move player, if greater scroll background
    if (heightCounter <= 20) {
      movePlayerUp();
    }
    if (heightCounter >= 20) {
      drawArrow();
      scrollDown();
    }

    //if time elapsed is greater than fuel rate, lower bar
    if ((timer.currentMillis - timer.previousMillis >= fuelBar.rate && fuelBar.height >= 1)) {
      ++fuelBar.y;
      --fuelBar.height;
      timer.previousMillis = timer.currentMillis;
    }
    //change player sprite and frame
    playerSprite = playerUp;
    updatePlayerFrame();
  }
  //if left button is pressed and background is less than 75, scroll background and animate sprite
  if (arduboy.pressed(LEFT_BUTTON)) {
    scrollLeft();
    playerSprite = playerLeft;
    updatePlayerFrame();
  }
  //and right
  if (arduboy.pressed(RIGHT_BUTTON)) {
    scrollRight();
    updatePlayerFrame();
  }
  //if no buttons are pressed, frame for player animation is 0
  if (!arduboy.pressed(UP_BUTTON) && !arduboy.pressed(DOWN_BUTTON) && !arduboy.pressed(LEFT_BUTTON) && !arduboy.pressed(RIGHT_BUTTON)) {
    playerFrame = 0;
  }
}

It depends what you mean by ‘testing’ the if statements.


One thing is clear, your altitude isn’t working properly for some reason.


I meant in the sense of

void scrollY(){
   if (background.y <= 75){
      background.y +=1;
   }
   if (background.y >= -75){
      background.y -+1;
   }
}

I was under the impression that was what the parenthesis in a function name was for (such as scrollY(background.y){} ) for passing an input to the function, but apparently not :stuck_out_tongue:

Also, seems i just made a mess of my code so im going back and re doing all the functions again to see where it went wrong (should have saved between then, of course). Also noticed I messed that axis up somewhere along the lines but i think i just made a bigger mess as i tried to correct it -_- shouldnt take me too long to get back to where i was though, sorry for the mess

Yeah, that’s allowed.
(Though the latter should be -=, not -+.)

Round brackets have multiple uses.
They’re used in various statements (if, for, while), they can be used to group expressions, and they can be used to call functions.

Curly braces and square brackets also have multiple uses.
Some keywords even have several meanings depending on the context (like class, static and const).

If you commit any edits to GitHub and later make a mistake then you can ‘time travel’ through the commits to get an older version.

Every commit is basically a time capsule that stores a copy of the code’s state at a given point in time.


I got at least some of it working, and made a few tweaks:

#include <Arduboy2.h>

PROGMEM const unsigned char playerUp[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 9 Height: 9
  9, 9,
  0x00, 0x00, 0xE0, 0x7C, 0x47, 0x7C, 0xE0, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x00, 0xE0, 0x7C, 0xC7, 0x7C, 0xE0, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x00, 0xE0, 0x7C, 0xC7, 0x7C, 0xE0, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x00, 0xE0, 0x7C, 0xC7, 0x7C, 0xE0, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
};

PROGMEM const unsigned char playerLeft[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 9 Height: 16
  9, 9,
  0x01, 0x06, 0x2A, 0x74, 0xA8, 0x1C, 0x08, 0x10, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x01, 0x06, 0x2A, 0x74, 0xA8, 0x3C, 0x48, 0x10, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x01, 0x06, 0x2A, 0x74, 0xA8, 0x3C, 0x48, 0x90, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x01, 0x06, 0x2A, 0x74, 0xA8, 0x3C, 0x48, 0x10, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
};

PROGMEM const unsigned char playerRight[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 9 Height: 16
  9, 9,
  0x00, 0x10, 0x08, 0x1C, 0xA8, 0x74, 0x2A, 0x06, 0x01,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x10, 0x48, 0x3C, 0xA8, 0x74, 0x2A, 0x06, 0x01,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x90, 0x48, 0x3C, 0xA8, 0x74, 0x2A, 0x06, 0x01,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x10, 0x48, 0x3C, 0xA8, 0x74, 0x2A, 0x06, 0x01,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
};

PROGMEM const unsigned char backgroundTile1[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 64 Height: 64
  64, 64,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x04, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
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};

PROGMEM const unsigned char backgroundTile2[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 64 Height: 64
  64, 64,
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};

PROGMEM const unsigned char backgroundTile3[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 64 Height: 64
  64, 64,
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};

struct Timer {
  unsigned long currentMillis;
  unsigned long previousMillis = 0;
};

struct PointXY {
  int x = 0;
  int y = 0;
};

struct Launchpad {
  int x1;
  int y1;
  int x2;
  int y2;
};

struct FuelBar {
  uint16_t x;
  uint16_t y;
  uint8_t height;
  uint8_t width;
  uint16_t rate;
};

struct Arrow {
  uint16_t x1;
  uint16_t x2;
  uint16_t x3;
  uint16_t y1;
  uint16_t y2;
  uint16_t y3;
};

constexpr int worldWidth = 296;
constexpr int worldHeight = 128;
constexpr int tileSize = 64;

Arduboy2 arduboy;

Timer timer;
PointXY playerXY;
Launchpad launchpad { 61, 58, 73, 58 };
PointXY background1;
PointXY background2;
PointXY background3;
FuelBar fuelBar { 0, 20, 30, 5, 800 };
Arrow arrow { 61, 73, 67, 58, 58, 64 };

uint16_t heightCounter = 0;
uint8_t playerFrame = 0;
uint8_t const * playerSprite = playerUp;

void setup() {
  arduboy.boot();
  arduboy.setFrameRate(10);
  arduboy.clear();
}

void loop() {
  if (!arduboy.nextFrame()) {
    return;
  }

  timer.currentMillis = millis();
  
  handleInput();
  
  arduboy.clear();
  
  drawGame();
  
  arduboy.display();
}

void updatePlayerFrame() {
  if (playerFrame < 3)
    ++playerFrame;
  else
    playerFrame = 0;
}

void drawBackground() {
  //For each row in the column, draw background
  for (int x = 0; x < worldWidth; x += tileSize ) {
    for (int y = 0; y < worldHeight; y += tileSize) {
      Sprites::drawSelfMasked(x + background1.x, y - background1.y - 75, backgroundTile1, 0 );
      Sprites::drawSelfMasked(x + background2.x, y - background2.y - 75, backgroundTile2, 0 );
      Sprites::drawSelfMasked(x + background3.x, y - background3.y - 75, backgroundTile3, 0 );
    }
  }
}

void drawHUD() {
  arduboy.print("alt.");
  arduboy.print('\n');
  arduboy.print(heightCounter);
  arduboy.print("00");
  arduboy.fillRect(fuelBar.x, fuelBar.y, fuelBar.width, fuelBar.height);
}

void drawPlayer() {
  Sprites::drawSelfMasked(playerXY.x + 63, playerXY.y + 50, playerSprite, playerFrame);
}

void drawLaunchpad() {
  arduboy.drawLine(launchpad.x1 + background1.x, launchpad.y1 - background1.y, launchpad.x2 + background1.x, launchpad.y2 - background1.y);
}

void drawArrow() {
  arduboy.fillTriangle(arrow.x1 + background1.x, arrow.y1, arrow.x2 + background1.x, arrow.y2, arrow.x3 + background1.x, arrow.y3);
}

void drawGame() {
  drawBackground();
  drawLaunchpad();
  drawPlayer();
  drawArrow();
  drawHUD();  
}

void movePlayerUp() {
  --playerXY.y;
}

void movePlayerDown() {
  ++playerXY.y;
}

void scrollUp() {
  background1.y -= 1;
  background2.y -= 2;
  background3.y -= 3;
}

void scrollDown() {
  background1.y += 1;
  background2.y += 2;
  background3.y += 3;

}
void scrollLeft() {
  if (background1.x <= 75) {
    background1.x += 1;
    background2.x += 2;
    background3.x += 3;
  }
}

void scrollRight() {
  if (background1.x >= -75) {
    background1.x -= 1;
    background2.x -= 2;
    background3.x -= 3;
  }
}

void handleInput() {
  
  //movement
  //if up button pressed
  if (arduboy.pressed(UP_BUTTON)) {
    //raise height counter
    ++heightCounter;
	
    //if height counter is less than 20 move player, if greater scroll background
    if (heightCounter <= 20) {
      movePlayerUp();
    }
	
    if (heightCounter >= 20) {
      drawArrow();
      scrollDown();
    }

    //if time elapsed is greater than fuel rate, lower bar
    if (((timer.currentMillis - timer.previousMillis) >= fuelBar.rate) && (fuelBar.height >= 1)) {
      ++fuelBar.y;
      --fuelBar.height;
      timer.previousMillis = timer.currentMillis;
    }
	
    //change player sprite and frame
    playerSprite = playerUp;
    updatePlayerFrame();
  }
  else if(heightCounter >= 1) {
    //lower height counter
    --heightCounter;
	
    //if  height counter is less than 20 move player, if greater scroll background
    if (heightCounter <= 20) {
      movePlayerDown();
    }
	
    if (heightCounter >= 20) {
      scrollUp();
      drawArrow();
    }
  }
  
  
  //if left button is pressed and background is less than 75, scroll background and animate sprite
  if (arduboy.pressed(LEFT_BUTTON)) {
    scrollLeft();
    playerSprite = playerLeft;
    updatePlayerFrame();
  }
  
  //and right
  if (arduboy.pressed(RIGHT_BUTTON)) {
    scrollRight();
    playerSprite = playerRight;
    updatePlayerFrame();
  }
  
  //if no buttons are pressed, frame for player animation is 0
  if (!arduboy.pressed(UP_BUTTON) && !arduboy.pressed(DOWN_BUTTON) && !arduboy.pressed(LEFT_BUTTON) && !arduboy.pressed(RIGHT_BUTTON)) {
    playerFrame = 0;
  }
}

In case you missed it:

Which was basically me saying "that should be ++playerXY.y, not ++playerXY.x".

I think the ‘XY’ thing is a bad naming scheme.
Perhaps stick to playerPosition?
(playerPos if you really must, but contractions are generally a bad idea.)


Seeing how your fuel bar is working,
I can think of a slightly cheaper way to handle it,
but that will have to wait until tomorrow because it’s late here.

1 Like

Ah, thanks, ill definitely keep that in mind! Unfortunately (and also luckily) my most recent version was the one on github, but it was before i added any of the functions so had to backtrack a bit. Got pulled away a bit but should only take me a minute to catch back up. Promise not to make too much of a mess by the time you get back :stuck_out_tongue:

And yeah, position would be clearer, ill fix that. And for some reason the code you posted was still all sorts of messed up for me, but i saw how the drawGame function was better organised so Ill do that as well (that was the first part I got working so at least i know it works :P). Thanks again!

Alright, so I went ahead and started over from scratch, following along a bit with the changes you made (naturally), only change i made to yours was that I had a redundancy calling the same drawArrow function in two places when I could have simplified it. I think what messed me up was the background position drawn from the screen top of the screen and scrolling up or down was opposite the player moving up or down so I got tripped up while i was changing it then just made a mess from there :stuck_out_tongue:

Heres my working code with all the functions in the right places. If I see any more places i can remove redundancies ill update, if not ill just mess around with adding more stuff this way, but i wont post any more additions in case theres anything else i may be missing, dont want to spam. Thanks!

EDIT: Also, I noticed that reorganizing everything this way saved an entire 2% of programmemory (which is a lot when this much already takes up 34%). Im more worried about dynamic memory though, it already takes up 49% (and between functions and structs saved me 3%) so im sure theres probably other things to be done to save memory.

EDIT 2: Actually im just going to go back through tomorrow and try to add more functions before messing around with adding anything else. Some of them are only used once now but are likely to be reused again later (such as background scrolling) not to mention itd be easier on the eyes

#include <Arduboy2.h>
Arduboy2 arduboy;


uint16_t heightCounter = 0;
struct Timer {
  unsigned long currentMillis;
  unsigned long previousMillis = 0;
};

struct PointXY {
  int x = 0;
  int y = 0;
};

struct Launchpad {
  int x1;
  int y1;
  int x2;
  int y2;
};

struct FuelBar {
  uint16_t x;
  uint16_t y;
  uint8_t height;
  uint8_t width;
  uint16_t rate;
};

struct Arrow {
  uint16_t x1;
  uint16_t x2;
  uint16_t x3;
  uint16_t y1;
  uint16_t y2;
  uint16_t y3;


};

Timer timer;
PointXY playerXY;
Launchpad launchpad { 61, 58, 73, 58 };
PointXY background1;
PointXY background2;
PointXY background3;
FuelBar fuelBar { 0, 20, 30, 5, 800 };
Arrow arrow { 61, 73, 67, 58, 58, 64 };



constexpr int worldWidth = 296;
constexpr int worldHeight = 128;
constexpr int tileSize = 64;
uint8_t const *playerSprite = nullptr;

PROGMEM const unsigned char playerUp[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 9 Height: 9
  9, 9,
  0x00, 0x00, 0xE0, 0x7C, 0x47, 0x7C, 0xE0, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x00, 0xE0, 0x7C, 0xC7, 0x7C, 0xE0, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x00, 0xE0, 0x7C, 0xC7, 0x7C, 0xE0, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x00, 0xE0, 0x7C, 0xC7, 0x7C, 0xE0, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
};

PROGMEM const unsigned char playerLeft[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 9 Height: 16
  9, 9,
  0x01, 0x06, 0x2A, 0x74, 0xA8, 0x1C, 0x08, 0x10, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x01, 0x06, 0x2A, 0x74, 0xA8, 0x3C, 0x48, 0x10, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x01, 0x06, 0x2A, 0x74, 0xA8, 0x3C, 0x48, 0x90, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x01, 0x06, 0x2A, 0x74, 0xA8, 0x3C, 0x48, 0x10, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
};

PROGMEM const unsigned char playerRight[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 9 Height: 16
  9, 9,
  0x00, 0x10, 0x08, 0x1C, 0xA8, 0x74, 0x2A, 0x06, 0x01,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x10, 0x48, 0x3C, 0xA8, 0x74, 0x2A, 0x06, 0x01,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x90, 0x48, 0x3C, 0xA8, 0x74, 0x2A, 0x06, 0x01,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

  0x00, 0x10, 0x48, 0x3C, 0xA8, 0x74, 0x2A, 0x06, 0x01,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
};

PROGMEM const unsigned char backgroundTile1[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 64 Height: 64
  64, 64,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x04, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
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  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
};

PROGMEM const unsigned char backgroundTile2[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 64 Height: 64
  64, 64,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
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};

PROGMEM const unsigned char backgroundTile3[] = {
  // Bitmap Image. No transparency
  // Width: 64 Height: 64
  64, 64,
  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
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};

void setup() {
  arduboy.boot();
  arduboy.setFrameRate(10);
  playerSprite = playerUp;
  arduboy.clear();
}

uint8_t playerFrame = 0;

void loop() {

  if (!arduboy.nextFrame()) {
    return;
  }

  timer.currentMillis = millis();
  arduboy.clear();
  drawGame();
  //gravity
  //if up button is not pressed and height is above 1
  handleInput();
  arduboy.display();
}

void handleInput(){
  if (!arduboy.pressed(UP_BUTTON) && heightCounter >= 1) {
    //lower height counter
    --heightCounter;
    //if  height counter is less than 20 move player, if greater scroll background
    if (heightCounter <= 20) {
      movePlayerDown();
    }
    if (heightCounter >= 20) {
      background1.y += 1;
      background2.y += 2;
      background3.y += 3;
    }
  }
  //movement
  //if up button pressed
  if (arduboy.pressed(UP_BUTTON)) {
    //raise height counter
    ++heightCounter;
    //if height counter is less than 20 move player, if greater scroll background
    if (heightCounter <= 20) {
      movePlayerUp();
    }
    if (heightCounter >= 20) {
      background1.y -= 1;
      background2.y -= 2;
      background3.y -= 3;
    }
    //if time elapsed is greater than fuel rate, lower bar
    if ((timer.currentMillis - timer.previousMillis >= fuelBar.rate && fuelBar.height >= 1)) {
      ++fuelBar.y;
      --fuelBar.height;
      timer.previousMillis = timer.currentMillis;
    }
    //change player sprite and frame
    playerSprite = playerUp;
    playerAnimate();
  }
  //if left button is pressed and background is less than 75, scroll background and animate sprite
  if (arduboy.pressed(LEFT_BUTTON) && background1.x <= 75) {
    background1.x += 1;
    background2.x += 2;
    background3.x += 3;
    playerSprite = playerLeft;
    playerAnimate();
  }
  //and right
  if (arduboy.pressed(RIGHT_BUTTON) && background1.x >= -75) {
    background1.x -= 1;
    background2.x -= 2;
    background3.x -= 3;
    playerSprite = playerRight;
    playerAnimate();

  }
  //if no buttons are pressed, frame for player animation is 0
  if (!arduboy.pressed(UP_BUTTON) && !arduboy.pressed(DOWN_BUTTON) && !arduboy.pressed(LEFT_BUTTON) && !arduboy.pressed(RIGHT_BUTTON)) {
    playerFrame = 0;
  }
}

void movePlayerUp() {
  --playerXY.y;
}

void movePlayerDown() {
  ++playerXY.y;
}

void playerAnimate() {
  if (playerFrame < 3) {
    ++playerFrame;
  }
  else
    playerFrame = 0;
}

void drawBackground() {
  //For each row in the column, draw background
  for (int x = 0; x < worldWidth; x += tileSize ) {
    for (int y = 0; y < worldHeight; y += tileSize) {
      Sprites::drawSelfMasked(x + background1.x, y - background1.y - 75, backgroundTile1, 0 );
      Sprites::drawSelfMasked(x + background2.x, y - background2.y - 75, backgroundTile2, 0 );
      Sprites::drawSelfMasked(x + background3.x, y - background3.y - 75, backgroundTile3, 0 );
    }
  }
}

void drawLaunchpad() {
  arduboy.drawLine(launchpad.x1 + background1.x, launchpad.y1 - background1.y, launchpad.x2 + background1.x, launchpad.y2 - background1.y);
}

void drawPlayer() {
  Sprites::drawSelfMasked(playerXY.x + 63, playerXY.y + 50, playerSprite, playerFrame);
}

void drawArrow() {
  if (heightCounter >= 30) {
    arduboy.fillTriangle(arrow.x1 + background1.x, arrow.y1, arrow.x2 + background1.x, arrow.y2, arrow.x3 + background1.x, arrow.y3);
  }
}

void drawHUD() {
  arduboy.print("alt.");
  arduboy.print('\n');
  arduboy.print(heightCounter);
  arduboy.print("00");
  arduboy.fillRect(fuelBar.x, fuelBar.y, fuelBar.width, fuelBar.height);
  drawArrow();
}

void drawGame() {
  drawBackground();
  drawLaunchpad();
  drawPlayer();
  drawHUD();
}